Bruce Tuckman proposed the model suggesting stages of group development or group formation in 1965. The model initially included 4 stages of group development – Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing. In 1977, Tuckman and Mary Ann Jensen added 5th stage to the model, which is named Adjourning. This stage shows how people form groups and how they behave from beginning to end. The five stages are explained briefly as follows-
- Forming: This stage is the initial stage where the group is built. The group members try to get close and know each other. The members seek to know what the task is and what is the purpose and goal of the group. At this stage, members are shy and try to avoid conflict and controversies.
- Storming: The members start interacting with each other regarding the task, duties and responsibilities. Positions and roles within the group are allocated. The members who dominate the group seek out for status, power, authority and influence. In this stage, disagreements and personality clashes occur.It is the most uncomfortable phase of groups life.
- Norming: In this stage, group members seek responsibilities and understand their roles. Implicit and Explicit group norms are formed. Conflicts and controversies are resolved and everyone works in cohesive and co-operative manner. The stage is very crucial and if conflicts are not resolved the group may slip back to storming stage.
- Performing: In this stage, a positive synergy is created among the members. The group becomes stable. Every member works towards the accomplishment of a goal. The members know each other very well and are able to handle any problem that comes before the team. The members are competent enough that they are able to handle the decision-making process without any supervision.
- Adjourning: Once the purpose is fulfilled the group is terminated and members get separated. This stage is also called as “mourning or deforming,” because, the sense of loss is felt by the group members after the separation.